06.11.2000

"Mountain vine-growing" - No. 12

LIST OF CONTENTS

  • Heroic vine-growing in DOCs?
    M. Fregoni - Editorial
  • Safeguarding vine-growing in mountainous and steeply sloping areas
    M.Fregoni, Sacred Heart Catholic University of Piacenza - Italy
    The viticulture of mountain areas or of high slopes (altitude higher than 300 a.s.l. and/or slope higher than 30%) is conceived as the "historical" viticulture with well recognized ecological, geological, touristic and environmental values. The excessive production costs and the very high human labor requirement which characterize this type of vineyards are the main reasons for increasing rates of land abandon. To preserve this historical monuments it is proposed that the high slope viticulture will be recognized as "Cultural Patrimony of Mankind" and the both technical and economical interventions aiming to its preservation will be fostered in the future. 
  • The Fregoni quality bioclimatic list of contents
    C. Fregoni, S.Pezzutto, Sacred Heart Catholic University of Piacenza – Italy
    The bio-climatic indices currently used in viticulture do not usually take into account daily temperatures lower than 10°C. By contrast, Mario Fregoni has etablished a correlation between the temperatures lower than 10°C and wine quality when the same low temperatures occur within 30 days before harvest. Based on this ratio, Fregoni has proposed a bio-climatic index which includes the summation of the day/night temperature differences multiplied by the number of days having temperature lower than 10°C. The index must be calculated for the month of September during which ripening of most winegrapes varieties grown in Europe takes place (March in the month to be considered for Southern Hemispere). The Fregoni index has been applied in 29 different climatic areas in Italy and results show that there is a relationship with the latitude (which is not commonly showed when the Winkler index is used). Similar results to those obtained under italian environments have been achieved when the Fregoni index has been calculated for the sparkling wine producing region of Villafranca del Pénedes (Spain), whereas the index calculated for Chile has shown considerably higher values due to higher day/night thermal differences recorded in March. The rank of the Fregoni index value needs to be more deeply evaluated with reference to a broader range of climate types. Ist value has already been proved for the choice of site selection. 
  • Checking the objective contribution of selected yeast in differentiating Blanc de Morgex et La Salle and Moscato di Chambave
    C. Cocito, C. Delfini, Asti Experimental Oenology Institute – Italy
    Experiments were performed in order to compare the olfactory characteristics of the wines Blanc de Morgex-La Salle and Moscato di Chambave, which were fermented with different selected yeast strains, with those obtained by the same yeasts in syntetic media (MNS). Experiments were also done in order to verify how much model solutions, which were obtained with the same volatile fraction exixting in the above wines (27 volatile compounds), were recognisable to the olfaction by Coupling and Preference Tests in comparison with the corresponding wines produced by both the best and the worst selected yeast. The results can summarize as follows: 1) by comparing the volatile compound concentrations, MNS and grape must, fermented by the same yeast, have been recognized statistically different only in the 50% of the volatile compounds examinated; on the order side, fermented MNS and must have been significantly distinguished by sensorial analysis; 2) in the Coupling test, the model solution have been correctly coupled with the corresponding wines (the best and the worst); 3) the model solutions have been preferred in the same order as the corresponding wines. Thus, the "pool odour" (bouquet) that is formed by the contribution of each odour compounds we determine in white wines by gaschromatografy, would be enought in many cases to explain the differences existing from wine to wine.
  • Where do mountain vines come from and how have they been preserved over time?
    M. Messiez, Scholar in geography, Savoy - France
    Where do the vinestocks of the mountain areas come from? And for vines we mean those called "Heroic" because of the physical configuration of the territory, because of the work conditions of the vine-growers and of the climate they have to face. Are the viticultural areas suited to the production of vine cuttings and can they consequently keep the original authentic character of the mountain wines got from specific, rare species of vines which was made by a university teacher who has followed the growth of the vine cuttings for over thirty years, being based on the nurseries of the alpine arc, is trying to give an answer to these questions.
  • The improvement and safeguard of some typical varieties of Triest  "Carso" by studying the vine-growing vocation of the territory
    G.Colugnati, G.Crespan, A.Boschin, F.Bregant, I.Tonetti, Vine-growing and wine-producing Pilot Centre, Gorizia - Italy
    The preservation of the residual areas, of the authochtonous vineyards and their improvement are of great valueas they slow down the genetic, but also cultural erosion which the whole market would tend to favour. The Karst of Trieste area is an ecosystem of certain interest both for its orographic characteristics and its peculiar climatic conditions. In this areas we have located some places representative of the different edaphic conditions and we have put under observation two so called "minor" local vines: Vitouska and Istrian Malmsey. So we have studied their vegetative productive performances, oenological potentialities and behaviour stability in the various envitonnements. The result is that cultivar Vitouska doesn't seem to be so influenced by the climatic range as the Istrian Malmsey which, on the contrary, answers in different ways to the various metereological conditions taking place during the vegetative season. 
  • Safeguarding, preserving and improving the genetic variability of vines in the Valais.
    D.Maigre, J.J.Brugger, P.Gugerli, Changins Federal Research Centre, M.Pont, Valais Viticulture Office, Sion - Switzerland
    The favourable climate of Valais allows the cultivation of a large range of local and foreign early to late ripening varieties. Local varieties meet a renewed interest and the cultivated surfaces tend to increase. Since 1992, an important selection work in the vineyards is realized in order to conserve genetic resources of old local, high quality grapevine varieties such as: Petite Arvine, Cornalin, Humagne Rouge, Amigne, Humagne Blanc. Some other widely used varieties are also included in this program. The ancient cultivars are few selected and often very virus infected. The aims are multiple: to save the genotypic variability inside the variety, to eliminate the vines affected by severe virus diseases and to provide rapidly nurseryman with propagation material of improved quality, of mass selection type.
  • An applicable example of the monorail system: grape harvest in the Costa Viola.
    R. Previtera - Reggio Calabria University - Italy
    The mechanization of viticulture on the hilly areas of the Calabrian Violet Coast (RC), with particular reference to the monorail, enables the agricultural workers of that area to carry on a sort of activity otherwise doomed to abandon. This would cause serious consequences to the hydro-geological conformation of the whole mostly terraced territory, as typical of the maountainside on cliffs that drop down into the sea. The "monorack system" with a two-stroke engine and pinion drive, enables the grapes transport and the processing means be quicker, so allowing us to save up to 80% of the production cost of the end pwine, particular, beaving in mind that the monorack covers a 4,4 m distance in 1'3'' and man in 1'5'', respectively with 6 and 1 containers full of grapes, we may state that, time being equal, the loading capacity of the monorail is minimum1, maximum 10 times higher than man's one, depending on the number of the containers carried. This turn into a considerable growth of the daily average efficiency of the working yard and of the equivalent intercrease of its productivity (up to 165 times). All this is confirmed by the working capacity and the hourly moment transport (M) calculated through the two monorail plantings in Scilla (RC) and which are the subject of our study. So the increasing use of the monorail alonf the Violet Coast can contribute to the relaunching of viticulture and therefore of the quality wine production in the whole area.
  • Third international symposium on viticulture zonation at Puerto de la Cruz - Tenerife
  • The CERVIM guest in Galicia (E) at the 6th edition of the Wine Exhibition